Reference Type



1. Relative references change as they are copied.

2. Absolute references stay the same as they are copied

Relative Every relative cell reference in a formula automatically changes when the formula is copied down a column or across a row. This is why in the first lesson you could copy the January formula to add up February expenses. As the example illustrated here shows, when the formula =C4*$D$9 is copied from row to row, the relative cell references change from C4 to C5 to C6.

Absolute An absolute cell reference is fixed. Absolute references don't change if you copy a formula from one cell to another. Absolute references have dollar signs ($) like this: $D$9. As the art shows, when the formula =C4*$D$9 is copied from row to row, the absolute cell reference remains as $D$9.

Mixed A mixed cell reference has either an absolute column and a relative row, or an absolute row and a relative column. For example, $A1 is an absolute reference to column A and a relative reference to row 1. As a mixed reference is copied from one cell to another, the absolute reference stays the same but the relative reference changes.

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